Études is French for "studies". It is used as a name for several music or dance works, including:
'' Études'', three sets of studies for the piano by Frédéric Chopin, composed between 1829 and 1839
'' Études'', a set of 12 piano études composed in 1915 by Claude Debussy
'' Études'', a 1948 ballet by Harald Lander
'' Études'', 18 piano studies composed between 1985 and 2001 by György Ligeti
A number of musical works include the word Études in their title:
'' Trois Nouvelles Études'' for piano written by Frédéric Chopin in 1839
'' Trois Études de concert'', a set of three piano études by Franz Liszt, composed between 1845 and 1849
'' Grandes Études de Paganini'', a series of six études for the piano by Franz Liszt, in 1851
'' Études d'exécution transcendante'', a series of twelve compositions for solo piano by Franz Liszt in 1852
'' Études-Tableaux'', two sets of piano études composed in 1911 by Sergei Rachmaninoff
'' Études australes'' and '' Études boréales'', two sets of études for cello and/or piano composed by John Cage between 1974 and 1978
'' Études transcendantales'', a song cycle in 9 movements for mezzo-soprano and chamber ensemble composed by Brian Ferneyhough between 1982 and 1985
The word Études also appears in the academic world:
École pratique des hautes études, a prestigious research and higher education institution in France
Institut des hautes études scientifiques, a French institute supporting advanced research in mathematics and theoretical physics, located in Bures-sur-Yvette just south of Paris
École des hautes études commerciales is the name of prestigious business schools in France, Switzerland, Belgium, Canada, etc.
'' Études celtiques'', a French academic journal of Celtic Studies, based in Paris, founded in 1870
'' Revue des études juives'', a French quarterly of Jewish studies, founded in 1880
The Études by Frédéric Chopin are three sets of solo studies for the piano. There are twenty-seven overall, comprising two separate collections of twelve, numbered Opus 10 and 25, and a set of three without opus number.
''Études'' is a ballet by Danish dancer and choreographer Harald Lander with original score by Carl Czerny and piano studies arranged by Knudåge Riisager. It is considered Lander's most famous choreographic work and brought him international fame.
Claude Debussy's ''Études'' ( L 136) are a set of 12 piano études composed in 1915. The pieces are extremely difficult to play, and Debussy described them as "a warning to pianists not to take up the musical profession unless they have remarkable hands". They are broadly considered his late masterpieces. " ... Etudes for piano, one of his greatest late works.", Lesure, Howat, 2006
The Hungarian composer György Ligeti composed a cycle of 18 études for solo piano between 1985 and 2001. They are one of the major creative achievements of his last decades, and one of the most significant sets of piano studies of the 20th century, combining virtuoso technical problems with expressive content, following in the line of the études of Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, and Claude Debussy, but addressing new technical ideas as a compendium of the concepts Ligeti had worked out in his other works since the 1950s. Pianist Jeremy Denk wrote that they "are a crowning achievement of his career and of the piano literature; though still new, they are already classics." Though the four Études of Book 3 form a satisfying conclusion to the cycle, Book 3 is in fact unfinished, in that Ligeti certainly intended to add more, but was unable to do so in his last years, when his productivity was much reduced owing to illness. The Études of Book 3 seem generally calmer, simpler, more refined in technique than those of Books 1 and 2.